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Scanner Accessories. View the DS Series Imagers. Find a Partner. While many scientists remain optimistic that a breakthrough is near, an operational gamma-ray laser is yet to be realized.

Some of the early studies were directed toward short pulses of neutrons exciting the upper isomer state in a solid so the gamma-ray transition could benefit from the line-narrowing of Mössbauer effect.

In September , the BBC News reported that there was speculation about the possibility of using positronium annihilation to drive a very powerful gamma ray laser.

David Cassidy of the University of California, Riverside proposed that a single such laser could be used to ignite a nuclear fusion reaction, replacing the banks of hundreds of lasers currently employed in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

Space-based X-ray lasers pumped by a nuclear explosion have also been proposed as antimissile weapons. Living cells have been used to produce laser light.

The GFP is used as the laser's "gain medium", where light amplification takes place. Upon bathing the cell with blue light, it could be seen to emit directed and intense green laser light.

When lasers were invented in , they were called "a solution looking for a problem". Fiber-optic communication using lasers is a key technology in modern communications, allowing services such as the Internet.

The first widely noticeable use of lasers was the supermarket barcode scanner , introduced in The laserdisc player, introduced in , was the first successful consumer product to include a laser but the compact disc player was the first laser-equipped device to become common, beginning in followed shortly by laser printers.

Lasers have many uses in medicine, including laser surgery particularly eye surgery , laser healing, kidney stone treatment, ophthalmoscopy , and cosmetic skin treatments such as acne treatment, cellulite and striae reduction, and hair removal.

Lasers are used to treat cancer by shrinking or destroying tumors or precancerous growths. They are most commonly used to treat superficial cancers that are on the surface of the body or the lining of internal organs.

They are used to treat basal cell skin cancer and the very early stages of others like cervical , penile , vaginal , vulvar , and non-small cell lung cancer.

Laser therapy is often combined with other treatments, such as surgery , chemotherapy , or radiation therapy.

Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy LITT , or interstitial laser photocoagulation , uses lasers to treat some cancers using hyperthermia, which uses heat to shrink tumors by damaging or killing cancer cells.

Lasers are more precise than traditional surgery methods and cause less damage, pain, bleeding , swelling, and scarring.

A disadvantage is that surgeons must have specialized training. It may be more expensive than other treatments. A laser weapon is a laser that is used as a directed-energy weapon.

In recent years, some hobbyists have taken interests in lasers. Due to the cost of lasers, some hobbyists use inexpensive means to obtain lasers, such as salvaging laser diodes from broken DVD players red , Blu-ray players violet , or even higher power laser diodes from CD or DVD burners.

Hobbyists also have been taking surplus pulsed lasers from retired military applications and modifying them for pulsed holography.

Pulsed Ruby and pulsed YAG lasers have been used. Different applications need lasers with different output powers. Lasers that produce a continuous beam or a series of short pulses can be compared on the basis of their average power.

Lasers that produce pulses can also be characterized based on the peak power of each pulse. The peak power of a pulsed laser is many orders of magnitude greater than its average power.

The average output power is always less than the power consumed. Even the first laser was recognized as being potentially dangerous. Theodore Maiman characterized the first laser as having a power of one "Gillette" as it could burn through one Gillette razor blade.

Today, it is accepted that even low-power lasers with only a few milliwatts of output power can be hazardous to human eyesight when the beam hits the eye directly or after reflection from a shiny surface.

At wavelengths which the cornea and the lens can focus well, the coherence and low divergence of laser light means that it can be focused by the eye into an extremely small spot on the retina , resulting in localized burning and permanent damage in seconds or even less time.

Lasers are usually labeled with a safety class number, which identifies how dangerous the laser is:. The indicated powers are for visible-light, continuous-wave lasers.

For pulsed lasers and invisible wavelengths, other power limits apply. People working with class 3B and class 4 lasers can protect their eyes with safety goggles which are designed to absorb light of a particular wavelength.

Infrared lasers with wavelengths longer than about 1. The label "eye-safe" can be misleading, however, as it applies only to relatively low power continuous wave beams; a high power or Q-switched laser at these wavelengths can burn the cornea, causing severe eye damage, and even moderate power lasers can injure the eye.

Lasers can be a hazard to both civil and military aviation, due to the potential to temporarily distract or blind pilots.

See Lasers and aviation safety for more on this topic. Cameras based on charge-coupled devices may actually be more sensitive to laser damage than biological eyes.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Device which emits light via optical amplification. For other uses, see Laser disambiguation.

For uses of "Laze", see Laze. Main article: Laser construction. Gain medium Laser pumping energy High reflector Output coupler Laser beam.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Laser science.

Main article: Stimulated emission. Play media. Main article: Q-switching. Main article: Mode-locking. Main article: Maser.

Further information: List of laser types. Main article: Gas laser. Main article: Fiber laser. Main article: Semiconductor lasers. Main article: List of applications for lasers.

Main articles: Laser medicine and Lasers in cancer treatment. Main article: Laser weapon. This article should include a summary of Laser weapon.

See Wikipedia:Summary style for information on how to incorporate it into this article's main text. December Main article: Laser safety.

Left: European laser warning symbol required for Class 2 lasers and higher. Right: US laser warning label, in this case for a Class 3B laser.

Gordon In Franken, P. Retrieved May 15, November 7, European Southern Observatory. Retrieved May 9, Lucent Technologies.

Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved October 24, In Edward P. Lazear ed. Biographical Memoirs.

National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved December 10, University Science Books. Light and Its Uses. Scientific American. June Progress in Quantum Electronics.

November Bibcode : Natur. May 23, Nature Communications. Bibcode : NatCo Physikalische Zeitschrift. Bibcode : PhyZ Programma Corso di Formazione Obbligatorio in Italian.

University of Milano-Bicocca. Archived from the original Powerpoint on June 14, Retrieved January 1, May 4, Masers and Lasers: An Historical Approach 2nd ed.

CRC Press. Retrieved March 15, Retrieved April 24, University of Chicago. Beam: The Race to Make the Laser. Oxford University Press. Popular Science.

Retrieved March 4, March 2, Bibcode : Sci Archived from the original on July 3, June 30, Bibcode : PhRvL.

Davidson Physics. Retrieved August 17, Homebuilt Lasers Page. Archived from the original on September 11, Retrieved September 15, Photon Systems, Covina, Calif.

Archived from the original PDF on July 1, Retrieved May 27, Handbook of the Eurolaser Academy. McGraw Hill Professional. Stewen, M.

Larionov, and A. Injeyan, U. Keller, and C. Marshall, ed. Optical Society of America, Washington, D.

October 25, Applied Physics Letters. Bibcode : ApPhL.. Hanel Photonics. Retrieved September 26, Retrieved August 11, August 19, Laser Focus World Online.

December 9, Archived from the original on March 13, January 13, Nano Letters. Bibcode : NanoL.. Bibcode : JOptB Ode to a quantum physicist: A festschrift in honor of Marlan O.

Reviews of Modern Physics. Bibcode : RvMP Laser Physics. Thermal effects are the predominant cause of laser radiation injury, but photo-chemical effects can also be of concern for specific wavelengths of laser radiation.

Even moderately powered lasers can cause injury to the eye. High power lasers can also burn the skin.

Some lasers are so powerful that even the diffuse reflection from a surface can be hazardous to the eye. The coherence and low divergence angle of laser light, aided by focusing from the lens of an eye, can cause laser radiation to be concentrated into an extremely small spot on the retina.

If the laser is sufficiently powerful, permanent damage can occur within a fraction of a second, literally faster than the blink of an eye.

Infrared lasers are particularly hazardous, since the body's protective glare aversion response, also referred to as the " blink reflex ," is triggered only by visible light.

A pop or click noise emanating from the eyeball may be the only indication that retinal damage has occurred i. Lasers can cause damage in biological tissues, both to the eye and to the skin, due to several mechanisms.

Another mechanism is photochemical damage, where light triggers chemical reactions in tissue. Photochemical damage occurs mostly with short-wavelength blue and ultra-violet light and can be accumulated over the course of hours.

The shock wave from the explosion can subsequently cause damage relatively far away from the point of impact. Ultrashort pulses can also exhibit self-focusing in the transparent parts of the eye, leading to an increase of the damage potential compared to longer pulses with the same energy.

Photoionization proved to be the main mechanism of radiation damage at the use of titanium-sapphire laser. The eye focuses visible and near-infrared light onto the retina.

A laser beam can be focused to an intensity on the retina which may be up to , times higher than at the point where the laser beam enters the eye. Most of the light is absorbed by melanin pigments in the pigment epithelium just behind the photoreceptors, [3] and causes burns in the retina.

Infrared light mainly causes thermal damage to the retina at near-infrared wavelengths and to more frontal parts of the eye at longer wavelengths.

The table below summarizes the various medical conditions caused by lasers at different wavelengths, not including injuries due to pulsed lasers.

The skin is usually much less sensitive to laser light than the eye, but excessive exposure to ultraviolet light from any source laser or non-laser can cause short- and long-term effects similar to sunburn , while visible and infrared wavelengths are mainly harmful due to thermal damage.

FAA researchers compiled a database of more than reported incidents occurring between and in which pilots have been startled, distracted, temporarily blinded, or disoriented by laser exposure.

This information led to an inquiry in the US Congress. However, laser exposure may create dangerous conditions such as flash blindness.

If this occurs during a critical moment in aircraft operation, the aircraft may be endangered. The MPE is measured at the cornea of the human eye or at the skin, for a given wavelength and exposure time.

A calculation of the MPE for ocular exposure takes into account the various ways light can act upon the eye. For example, deep-ultraviolet light causes accumulating damage, even at very low powers.

In addition to the wavelength and exposure time, the MPE takes into account the spatial distribution of the light from a laser or otherwise.

Collimated laser beams of visible and near-infrared light are especially dangerous at relatively low powers because the lens focuses the light onto a tiny spot on the retina.

Light sources with a smaller degree of spatial coherence than a well-collimated laser beam, such as high-power LEDs , lead to a distribution of the light over a larger area on the retina.

For such sources, the MPE is higher than for collimated laser beams. In the MPE calculation, the worst-case scenario is assumed, in which the eye lens focuses the light into the smallest possible spot size on the retina for the particular wavelength and the pupil is fully open.

Although the MPE is specified as power or energy per unit surface, it is based on the power or energy that can pass through a fully open pupil 0.

This is relevant for laser beams that have a cross-section smaller than 0. In various jurisdictions, standards bodies, legislation, and government regulations define classes of laser according to the risks associated with them, and define required safety measures for people who may be exposed to those lasers.

In addition to EN , European standard EN specifies requirements for goggles for use during beam alignment. These transmit a portion of the laser light, permitting the operator to see where the beam is, and do not provide complete protection against a direct laser beam hit.

Finally, European standard EN specifies optical densities in extreme situations. In the US , guidance for the use of protective eyewear, and other elements of safe laser use, is given in the ANSI Z series of standards.

OEM lasers, designed to be parts of other components such as DVD burners , are exempt from this requirement.

Lasers have been classified by wavelength and power [18] into four classes and a few subclasses since the early s. There are two classification systems, the "old system" used before , and the "revised system" being phased in since The latter reflects the greater knowledge of lasers that has been accumulated since the original classification system was devised, and permits certain types of lasers to be recognized as having a lower hazard than was implied by their placement in the original classification system.

The revised system is part of the revised IEC standard. Since , labeling according to the revised system is accepted by the FDA on laser products imported into the US.

The old and revised systems can be distinguished by the 1M, 2M and 3R classes used only in the revised system and the 2A and 3A classes used only in the old system.

The revised system uses Arabic numerals 1—4 in all jurisdictions. The classification of a laser is based on the concept of accessible emission limits AEL that are defined for each laser class.

This is usually a maximum power in W or energy in J that can be emitted in a specified wavelength range and exposure time that passes through a specified aperture stop at a specified distance.

It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to provide the correct classification of a laser, and to equip the laser with appropriate warning labels and safety measures as prescribed by the regulations.

Safety measures used with the more powerful lasers include key-controlled operation, warning lights to indicate laser light emission, a beam stop or attenuator, and an electrical contact that the user can connect to an emergency stop or interlock.

Below, the main characteristics and requirements for the classification system as specified by the IEC standard [3] are listed, along with typical required warning labels.

Additionally, classes 2 and higher must have the triangular warning label shown here and other labels are required in specific cases indicating laser emission, laser apertures, skin hazards, and invisible wavelengths.

For classes I to IV, see the section old system further below. A Class 1 laser is safe under all conditions of normal use.

This means the maximum permissible exposure MPE cannot be exceeded when viewing a laser with the naked eye or with the aid of typical magnifying optics e.

To verify compliance, the standard specifies the aperture and distance corresponding to the naked eye, a typical telescope viewing a collimated beam, and a typical microscope viewing a divergent beam.

A Class 1M laser is safe for all conditions of use except when passed through magnifying optics such as microscopes and telescopes.

A Class 2 laser is considered to be safe because the blink reflex glare aversion response to bright lights will limit the exposure to no more than 0.

Intentional suppression of the blink reflex could lead to eye injury.

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